Fiqhul Eid made Easy

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Fiqhul Eid made easy

In light of the Sunnah

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

1: Why is it called Eid?

  •  It is called Eid because it returns yearly and  Jumu’ah is the weekly Eid. [1]

2: Is the Eid prayer Sunnah, Wajib, or Fard Keyfiyah?

  • The scholars differ and the strongest opinion is that it is Fard ‘Ayn on every Muslim. This is the position of Abu Hanifah and Shaykhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah. Reason being they hold this view is the Prophet (sallAllahu alayhi wa salam) never left it off, and even the menstruating women were ordered to attend.[2]

3: Where is Eid prayer held? Is it in the Masjid like Jumu’ah?

  • Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudiri(Radi Allahu Anhu ) said:

 

كَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَخْرُجُ يَوْمَ الْفِطْرِ وَالأَضْحَى إِلَى الْمُصَلَّى

” The Prophet(sallAllahu alayhi wa salam) used to go out on Eidul Fitr and Adha to the Musala. [3]

 

4: Is it Sunnah to offer any prayer when arriving at the Musala?

  • Ibn Abbass (Radi Allahu Anhu ) said:

النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم خرج يوم الفطر فصلى ركعتين ثم لم يصل قبلها ولا بعدها

“The Prophet (sallAllahu alayhi wa salam) came to the Eid prayer and prayed two Rak’ah. He didn’t pray before them or after them.[4]

 

Shaykh Salih Al-Fawzan said: It’s disliked to pray before the Eid prayer or after it any prayer in the Musala. One should just come and sit down.[5]

5: What should be said as I walk to the Musala to offer Eid?

  • Nafi’ said:

أَنَّ ابْنَ عُمَرَ كَانَ يَغْدُو إِلَى الْعِيدِ مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ ، وَكَانَ يَرْفَعُ صَوْتَهُ بِالتَّكْبِيرِ حَتَّى يَأْتِىَ الْمُصَلَّى وَيُكَبِّرُ حَتَّى يَأْتِىَ الإِمَامُ.

” Ibn Umar used to head out early in the morning  to Eid prayer from the Masjid. He used to raise his voice saying the ” Takbir” until he reached the Musala. After he reached the Musala he would continue with the Takbir until the Imam came.[6].

6: Are there any specific words to say for the Takbirs at Eid ?

  • Shaykh Abdul Muhsin Al-Abbadd said:” reported from the salaf are 2 phrases:” [7]

الله أكبر الله أكبر، لا إله إلا الله، الله أكبر الله أكبر ولله الحمد،   

  • or

الله أكبر كبيراً والحمد لله كثيراً

 

7: Should the Takbirat be said in unison with other people while waiting for the Imam to arrive?

  • Shaykh Abdul Muhsin Al-Abbadd: This act goes against the Sunnah. There isn’t anything authentic that supports the Takbir being said in harmony in a group.  Shaykh Hamoud At-Tuwayjuri wrote a book about this issue in detail.[8]

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8: Before going to the prayer what is Sunnah or Wajib?

  • It is Sunnah to eat something before going to Eid Al-Fitr.

كَانَ النَّبِىُّ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- لاَ يَخْرُجُ يَوْمَ الْفِطْرِ حَتَّى يَطْعَمَ وَلاَ يَطْعَمُ يَوْمَ الأَضْحَى حَتَّى يُصَلِّىَ.

The Prophet (sallAllahu alahyi wa salam) never went out to the Eid Al-Fitr prayer until he ate something and on Eid –Al-Adha he didn’t eat until after the prayer.[9]

 

9: How should we head out towards the Eid?

  • Ali ibn Abee Talib( Radi Allahu Anhu) said:

مِنَ السُّنَّةِ أَنْ تَخْرُجَ إِلَى الْعِيدِ مَاشِيًا وَأَنْ تَأْكُلَ شَيْئًا قَبْلَ أَنْ تَخْرُجَ

From the acts of Sunnah is to go out on the Eid walking (towards the Musala) and to eat something before you leave your house. [10]

 

 

 

10: How many Takbirs are there in the Prayer?

  • There are a total of 12.Aisha (Radi Allah Anha) said:

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- كَانَ يُكَبِّرُ فِى الْفِطْرِ وَالأَضْحَى فِى الأُولَى سَبْعَ تَكْبِيرَاتٍ وَفِى الثَّانِيَةِ خَمْسًا.

   Narrated by Aisha (Radi Allahu anha): ” The Prophet (sallAllahu alayhhi wa salam) in Eid Al-Fitr and Eid Al-Adha Prayer he used to do seven Takbirs in the 1st Rakha and in the 2nd he said 5[11].

 

 

11: Is there anything to be said between the extra Takbirat in the 1st and in the 2nd Rak’ah?

  • ‘Uqbah ibn Aamir (Radi Allah anhu) said:

قال عقبة بن عامر سألت ابن مسعود عما يقوله بعد تكبيرات العيد قال يحمد الله ويثني عليه ويصلي على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم

         ” I asked Ibn Mas’ud(radi Allah anhu) about what he said after the Takbirat in the Eid(prayer). He said: “I praised Allah and offer praises to him, and send salutations on the Prophet.”  [12]

Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal said: Between the Takbirat in Eid prayer a person should say: SubhanAllah, Al-Hamdulilah, La illaha ill Allah, Wa Allahu Akbar, Allahuma Sallu Ala Muhammadin An-Nabi , wa Ala Ali Muhammadin, waghfir lana war hamna. This is what has been reported from Abdullah in Mas’ud  [13]

12: What happens if I arrive late and find the Imam in Ruku’ ?

 

  • Mansoor bin Yoonus al-Buhuti (1051H) said: If you arrive at  the Musala and Imam is in Ruku’ then do Takbir Al-Ihram ,and then go into Ruku’ don’t busy yourself with making up the Takbir. Likewise if you come and find the Imam standing, but  he has completed saying the Takbirat, don’t make them up. Furthermore, if you arrive and the Imam is saying the extra Takbirat, then the ones you missed are just missed. (no need to make them up.)[14]

 

13: What about if I miss a complete Rak’ah ?

  • Hamad ibn Zayd said: If you miss a rak’ah with the Imam at the Eid prayer, make it up and do what the Imam did during the 1strakah.[15]

Shaykh Zayd Madkhali said: There are various narrations on the salaf like this one and the issue is vast.[16]

 

14:  Is it Sunnah to raise the hands for every Takbir?

  • Wa’il ibn Hajr (radi Allahu anhu) said:

رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يرفع يديه مع التكبير

” I saw the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu alayhi wa salam) raise his hands when saying the Takbir[17]

Shaykh Al-Albani said: This refers to the description of the obligatory prayers, which do not have the extra takbir in them. Thus, it can’t be used a proof to raise the hands for the Takbirat in the Eid prayer.[18]

15: What about the hadith of Umar ibn Khattab (Radi Allahu anhu)”  He used to raise his hand at every Takbir in the Funeral and Eid prayers.”

  • This hadith is collected in Al-Kubara by Al-Bayhaqi 3/293, Ibn Khuzayma(2703) Al-Bukhari in raising the hands (81) As-Shafi’ in Musand(586) and At-Tabarani (12072) . Al-Bayhaqi said the hadith is Munqat’I (broken) in its chain.
  • Ibn Jawzi said : There isn’t anything authentic regarding the narrations of raising the hands during seven incidences  from Umar, Ali or Ibn Umar [19]

16: Is there a difference of opinion about the issue of raising the hands for every Takbir?

  • Yes, some scholars say it’s not sunnah, because there is nothing reported on the Prophet (sallAllahu alayhi wa salam) about this act. They are Abu Yusef, Imam Malik, Ibn Hazm , Shaykh Al-Albani and Shaykh Muqbil and others . They rely on the hadith of Abdullah ibn Mas’ud (Radi Allah anhu) as one evidence.

أَلاَ أُصَلِّى بِكُمْ صَلاَةَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- قَالَ فَصَلَّى فَلَمْ يَرْفَعْ يَدَيْهِ إِلاَّ مَرَّةً.

” I will pray the Prophet’s (sallAllahu alayhi wa salam) prayer. He said,” He prayed and only raised his hands once.”[20]

The other group of Schoars who say you raise your hands at every Takbir are; Abu Haneefah, Ash-Shafa’I, Ahmed, Shaykh Bin Baz, Al-Uthaymeen, and Sh. Fawzan , and others. One piece of evidence they rely on is the hadith of Wa’il ibn Hajr. ” I saw the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu alayhi wa salam) raise his hands when saying the Takbir[21]

 Refer to Question number 14 above for Shaykh Al-Albani’s response to that judgment.

Al-Qadi Abdul Wahhab Al-Baghdadi (422H) said: Takbir Ihram is for the beginning of the prayer and doesn’t refer to anything after that. Allah knows best. [22]

17: After leaving the Eid Prayer is it Sunnah to take a different road?

  • Jabir (Radi Allahu Anhu) narrated

كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِذَا كَانَ يَوْمُ عِيدٍ خَالَفَ الطَّرِيقَ.

When the prophet (sallAllahu alayhi wa salam) went out to the Eid he took a different road when leaving.[23]

 

18: After I arrive home what is the Sunnah to do?

  • Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri (Radi Allahu Anhu) said:

كَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى الله عَليْهِ وسَلَّمَ لاَ يُصَلِّي قَبْلَ الْعِيدِ شَيْئًا ، فَإِذَا رَجَعَ إِلَى مَنْزِلِهِ صَلَّى رَكْعَتَيْنِ.

He never prayer before the Eid, but when he returned home he would pray two  Rak’ah.[24]

Translated and compiled by Abu Aaliyah Abdullah ibn Dwight Battle

Doha, Qatar, The Blessed Arabian Gulf

1435H©

 

www.twitter.com/lamontbattle  for tid-bit benefits of Fiqh / hadith which aren’t added to Blog page

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[1] Shaykh Mansour ibn Yousef Al-Bhuti, Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi` bi-Sharhi Zad il-Mustaqni pg 474

[2] Shaykh Salih Al-Fawzan, Sharhul Mukhtasru ala Matn Zad vol2/pg93-95

[3]  Al-Bukhari1/243 and Muslim3/20

[4] At-Tirmithi 537, At- Tirmithi graded this hadith as being Hasan Sahih

[5]Shaykh Salih Fawzan,   v2/pg117

[6] Al-Bayhaqi in Sunnan Al-Kubara 3/279 . Al-Bayhaqi said this athar is Sahih Mawquf .

[7] Explanation of Sunnan Abi Dawud, Maktabahtul Shaamila

[8] Explanation for Sunnan Abi Dawud , Courtesy of Maktabatul Shaamilah

[9]  Jam’I At-Tirmithi  # 545, Shaykh Al-Albani graded this hadith as being Sahih

[10] At-Tirmithi # 533,At-Tirmithi said this Hadith is Hasan

[11] Abu Dawud 1151-Shaykh Al-Albani graded it as being Sahih

[12]  At-Tabarani in Al-Kabeer3/37/2 Al-Albani graded this athar as being Sahih in Irwa Al-Ghalil

[13] Shaykh Abul Hussain Muhammad ibn Abee Ya’la,Tabaqat al-Fuqaha al-Hanabala 1/272

[14] Shaykh Mansour Al-Bhuti Vol1/pg 477

[15] Musanaf Ibn Abi Shaybah 2/187

[16] Al-Afnanu Nadiyah 2/315

[17] Ahmed 4/316 , Shaykh Al-Albani graded it as being Hasan in Irwa Al-Ghalil

[18]  Shaykh Al-albani ,Irwa Al-Ghalil 3/112-114

[19] At-Tahqeeq 1/336

[20]Abu Dawud 748, At-Tirmithi 257. At-Tirmithi graded this hadith as being Hasan and Al-Albani graded it as being Sahih.

[21] Ahmed 4/316 , Shaykh Al-Albani graded it as being Hasan in Irwa Al-Ghalil

[22] Sharhu Ar-Risala 1/32

[23]  Sahih Al- Bukhari 986

[24] Ibn Majah 1293  Ibn Hajar graded it as being Hasan in Fathul Bari and Al-Hakam graded it as being Sahih.

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