The Prophet (ﷺ) Advised us to do 3 Things.
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ – رضي الله عنه – قَالَ : أَوْصَانِي خَلِيلِي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – بِثَلاثٍ صِيَامِ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ مِنْ كُلِّ شَهْرٍ , وَرَكْعَتَيْ الضُّحَى , وَأَنْ أُوتِرَ قَبْلَ أَنْ أَنَامَ
Narrated Abu Huraira:
My best friend (the Prophet (ﷺ) advised me to observe three things: (1) to fast three days a month; (2) to pray two rak`at of Duha prayer (forenoon prayer); and (3) to pray Witr before sleeping.
Abu Dawud has the extra wording, “three practices that I won’t leave while traveling nor as a resident,…”
A comprehensive explanation
- Shaykh Abdul Aziz bin Baz said: ‘The same advice found in this hadith was also given to Abu Darda, Abu Dharr, and Abdullah ibn Amr 
- “My closest friend advised me…” The word used here was “Khaleel” and this represents the closest and most beloved kind of friend and least closest is considered an acquaintance.
- “to do three things: ‘To pray witr at the beginning of the night, to pray two rak’ahs of Fajr and to fast three days of each month.” Shaykh Ahmed ibn Yahya An-Najmi said: “This hadith shows that it’s a legislated practice to fast three days every month. The servant has the option to fast on the white days which are the 13th,14th and 15th or he can choose to fast Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, or opt to fast Sunday, Monday and Tuesday. All of these options have been mentioned in the Sunnah.
- Imam Muhammad ibn Ahmed As-Safareenee(1188H) said: Some scholars prefer to option to fast the black days which are the 28th,29th and the 30th . This opinion is chosen as the full moon brightens the night and the black days are filled with darkness. So fasting the white days is a way of extending gratitude and fasting on the black days removes the darkness, because each month is a visitor and should be treated with honor when leaving, hence you should earn your provisions for the next life therein.
- Fasting three days every month is equivalent to a continually fasting since deeds are multiplied by 10 times. 3×10= 30 days.
- “to pray two rak`at of Duha prayer (forenoon prayer)…” Shaykh Ahmed An-Najmi said: ‘There is difference of opinion about the Duha prayer being legislated. Aisha (Radi Allahu anha) said: “The Prophet (ﷺ)never offered Duha.”However, he recommended his companions to observe it. Therefore the negation from Aisha implies that he didn’t practice this prayer in their home, but prayed it in the masjid and she was unaware of that action. Another proof for the recommendation of the Duha prayer is the hadith collected Muslim. “The prayer of the penitent should be observed when the young weaned camels feel heat of the sun.”
- Ibn Al-Attar (724H) said: ‘The two Rak’at of Duha prayer serve as a charity for each bone in the body. The sunnah encourages this prayer. Imam Al-Hakim wrote an entire book dedicated to the Duha prayer. Al-Hakim mentioned that the highest amount a Rakat one could offer for this prayer would be twelve and the least would be two as cited in this hadith.
- “to pray witr before sleeping.” The Prophet (ﷺ) recommended him to practice praying Witr at night before going to bed to help pray Duha in the morning. The night time is a period when people are heedless and lazy and only want to relax. Abu Hurairah choose to study hadith at night instead of offering Tahajjud, so for that reason the Prophet (ﷺ) ordered him to observe Duha.
- Shaykh Ahmed An-Najmi said: “It’s recommended to pray before going bed if the slave can’t wake up during the night to offer it. And if the Muslim is certain that he can wake up during the night to pray then this is better. Allah praised the servants who wake up at night and pray. He said : “Their sides forsake their beds, to invoke their Lord in fear and hope, and they spend (charity in Allah’s Cause) out of what We have bestowed on them.[ As-Sajdah:16] and , “They used to sleep but little by night [invoking their Lord (Allah) and praying, with fear and hope].[Adh-Dhariyat:17]
- A person can delay the Duha prayer until an hour, an hour and a half or even two hours right before Duha
- The recommendation is to observe 2 Rak’at for Duha,but there’s no problem if a person prayed 4,6,8 or more .
- The person has the option to select the 3 days of every month he chooses to fast. Imam Ash-Shaf’I, Ahmed, Abu Hanifah and Ibn Habeeb choose to fast the 13th, 14th, and the 15th. And others say in one month a person should fast the first Saturday, Sunday and Monday and then the following month Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday at the beginning.
- A teacher should give advice to his students to help them practice acts of Sunnah.
Abu Aaliyah Abdullah ibn Dwight Battle
Doha, Qatar 1437H ©
 Al-Bukahri (1124,1180)Mulim (721)Abu Dawud (1432)At-Tirmithi (760) An-Nisa’i(1677-1678)`
 At-Ta’leeqat Ash-Shaykh Abdur Rahman As-Sa’dee
 Ta’sees Al-Ahkam ,vol 3,pg 275
 Kashful Al-Tham ,vol 3/pg 606
 Al-‘Uddah vol2
 Ibid,As-Safareenee 609
 Ibid. An-Najmi
 Ibid,Abdul Aziz bin baz
 Ibid, Ibn Al-Attar