The Argument between Adam and Moosa
A refutation on those who use the Qadr to Sin
By Shaykh Mar’ee ibn Yusef Al-Hanbali[1033H]
احْتَجَّ آدَمُ وَمُوسَى فَقَالَ لَهُ مُوسَى يَا آدَمُ أَنْتَ أَبُونَا خَيَّبْتَنَا وَأَخْرَجْتَنَا مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ بِذَنْبِكَ . فَقَالَ لَهُ آدَمُ يَا مُوسَى اصْطَفَاكَ اللَّهُ بِكَلاَمِهِ وَخَطَّ لَكَ التَّوْرَاةَ بِيَدِهِ أَتَلُومُنِي عَلَى أَمْرٍ قَدَّرَهُ اللَّهُ عَلَىَّ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَخْلُقَنِي بِأَرْبَعِينَ سَنَةً فَحَجَّ آدَمُ مُوسَى فَحَجَّ آدَمُ مُوسَى فَحَجَّ آدَمُ مُوسَى
The Prophet (ﷺ) said: ‘Adam and Musa debated, and Musa said to him: “O Adam, you are our father but have deprived us and caused us to be expelled from Paradise because of your sin.” Adam said to him: “O Musa, Allah chose you to speak with, and he wrote the Tawrah for you with His own Hand. Are you blaming me for something which Allah decreed for me forty years before He created me?” Thus Adam won the argument with Musa, thus Adam won the argument with Musa.'”
Benefits for this Hadith :
Some people use this hadith as a license to sin. Imam Al-Mar’ee ibn Yusef Al-Hanbali said: This hadith is authentic but it doesn’t mean what some people misconstrue it be. That is it’s permissible to sin as it’s all been decreed by Allah.
- Ibn Taymiyyah said: Some groups believe from this hadith that Adam used the Qadr as a reason for his sin and that he debated Musa with that as his proof.
- Imam Al-Mara’ee said the apparent meaning of this hadith is Adam debated Musa arguing that he repented of the sin, and submitted to the fact of the consequences of his action for his offspring.
- Included in this hadith is the act a person surrenders to the Qadr when a calamity befalls him.
- A repentant sinner can’t be blamed for what he did.
- The believer is ordered to return to the Qadr at a calamity and not to the sin or act of disobedience, so he remains patient during calamity and repents to Allah.
- As for sins then no one has the right to use the Qadr as means to justify the act of disobedience, rather he must avoid the sin, and if he sins ,then he must repent the same way Adam did.
- The Salaf said: Two people sinned Adam and Satan. Adam repented and Allah accepted it and Ibliss remained on his sin and used the Qadr as his excuse; thus he was cursed and expelled from Jannah. Hence whoever repents from sinning resembles Adam and whoever continues to sin using the Qadr is similar to Satan.
- If the Qadr was an excuse to sin then Ibliss, Fir’aun, and all disbelievers would have a valid excuse.
- Musa is well aware of Allah to blame Adam for a sin he repented from. The one who repents is like the one who never sinned. So how could Musa blame his father for a sin he repent for and consequently Allah forgave him.
- Using the Qadr as an excuse to sin is rejected by every religion and person of intellect. For instance, if a person oppressed another could fate be accepted as an excuse?
- If a person stole something for you would you accept his excuse it was decreed?
- If a person owed you some money would you accept his excuse I’ll pay you when Allah decrees I have money?
- If the Qadr was an excuse to sin and commit oppression then no one could blame anyone or be punished for their crimes. A person would have the right to take the life,the property, and the wealth of another and use the Qadr as an excuse.
- The people in Hell will try to use the Qadr as an excuse for their disobedience. Allah said: Those who took partners (in worship) with Allah will say: “If Allah had willed, we would not have taken partners (in worship) with Him, nor would our fathers, and we would not have forbidden anything (against His Will).”[Al-An’am:148]
- The pagans will use the Qadr as a reason for rejecting the Messengers, practicing shirk and abandoning Tawheed. However if one of them used the Qadr as an excuse to neglect his rights he wouldn’t accept it.
- The origins of those who use the Qadr to sin come from the pagans and Arabs of pre-Islamic times.
- Using the Qadr as an excuse to sin is among the greatest types of innovation.
- Allah said: And those who join others in worship with Allah say: “If Allah had so willed, neither we nor our fathers would have worshipped aught but Him, nor would we have forbidden anything without (Command from) Him.[An-Nahl:35]. Allah explained this speech refers to those who denied the messengers and doesn’t mean the Qadr is a proof.
- Only people of desires use the Qadr as a reason to sin.
- Every being of intellect knows the Qadr can’t be used to avoid acts since man has free will. For instance, if a slave told his master I won’t do it until Allah creates this action. Could that be accepted from the slave?
- If the Qadr was an excuse to sin, then nothing would happen except what Allah intended. This would mean Allah has placed a burden on the soul which it can’t bear and then be punished. This is oppression and Allah is free from oppression. 
 He lived during the beginning of the Othman era. He was born in Palestine. Some of his teachers were, Sh Muhammed Al-Mardawee, and Qadi Yahya Al-Hijjawi. Shaykh Mar’ee excelle in Quranic sciences, Naskh wa Mansukh,He was Salafi in his aqeedah and a Hanabli expert. He graduated from Azhar. His most well-known book today is Dalil At-Talib.
 Collected by Al-Bukhari  and Muslim 
 رفع الشبهة الغرر عمن يحتج على فعل المعاصي بالقدر , by Shaykh Mar’ee ibn Yusef Al-Hanbali