Praying Jumuah when the Eid falls on a Friday
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Imam Abu Dawud in his Sunan collected narrations for the subject of praying the Jumu’ah prayer if the Eid falls on Friday. He began placing these ahadith right after a series of hadith that mention the categories of people excused from Jumu’ah.
زَيْدَ بْنَ أَرْقَمَ قَالَ أَشَهِدْتَ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عِيدَيْنِ اجْتَمَعَا فِي يَوْمٍ قَالَ نَعَمْ . قَالَ فَكَيْفَ صَنَعَ قَالَ صَلَّى الْعِيدَ ثُمَّ رَخَّصَ فِي الْجُمُعَةِ فَقَالَ “ مَنْ شَاءَ أَنْ يُصَلِّيَ فَلْيُصَلِّ ”
Zayd ibn Arqam:
Ilyas ibn AbuRamlah ash-Shami said: I witnessed Mu’awiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan asking Zayd Ibn Arqam: Did you offer along with the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) the Friday and ‘Id prayers fell on the same day? He said: Yes. He asked: How did he do? He replied: He offered the ‘Id prayer, then granted concession to offer the Friday prayer, and said: If anyone wants to offer it, he may offer it
عَنْ عَطَاءِ بْنِ أَبِي رَبَاحٍ، قَالَ صَلَّى بِنَا ابْنُ الزُّبَيْرِ فِي يَوْمِ عِيدٍ فِي يَوْمِ جُمُعَةٍ أَوَّلَ النَّهَارِ ثُمَّ رُحْنَا إِلَى الْجُمُعَةِ فَلَمْ يَخْرُجْ إِلَيْنَا فَصَلَّيْنَا وُحْدَانًا وَكَانَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ بِالطَّائِفِ فَلَمَّا قَدِمَ ذَكَرْنَا ذَلِكَ لَهُ فَقَالَ أَصَابَ السُّنَّةَ .
Abdullah ibn Abbas:
Ata’ ibn Abi Rabah said: Ibn az-Zubayr led us in the ‘Id prayer on Friday early in the morning. When we went to offer the Friday, he did not come out to us. So we prayed by ourselves alone. At that time Ibn Abbas was present in at-Ta’if. When he came to us, we mentioned this (incident) to him. He said: He followed the Sunnah.
قَالَ عَطَاءٌ اجْتَمَعَ يَوْمُ جُمُعَةٍ وَيَوْمُ فِطْرٍ عَلَى عَهْدِ ابْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ فَقَالَ عِيدَانِ اجْتَمَعَا فِي يَوْمٍ وَاحِدٍ فَجَمَعَهُمَا جَمِيعًا فَصَلاَّهُمَا رَكْعَتَيْنِ بُكْرَةً لَمْ يَزِدْ عَلَيْهِمَا حَتَّى صَلَّى الْعَصْرَ .
The Friday and the ‘id prayers occurred during the time of Ibn al-Zubair. He said: Two festivals (‘id and Friday) both fell on the same day. He combined them and offered two rak’ahs in the morning and did not add anything until he offered the afternoon prayer.
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهُ قَالَ “ قَدِ اجْتَمَعَ فِي يَوْمِكُمْ هَذَا عِيدَانِ فَمَنْ شَاءَ أَجْزَأَهُ مِنَ الْجُمُعَةِ وَإِنَّا مُجَمِّعُونَ ”
The Prophet (ﷺ) said: Two festivals (‘Id and Friday) have both fell on this day. If anyone does not want to offer the Friday prayer, then the ‘Id prayer is enough for him. But we shall offer the Friday prayer.
Benefits for this subject.
- Imam Al-Albani graded these narrations as being authentic
- “If anyone wants to offer it, he may offer it.” Shows that when the Jumu’ah and ‘Id fall on the same day the excuse to not attend Jumu’ah is allowed only to the one who makes Eid prayer.
- He said: He followed the Sunnah. Shows the ‘Id is given preference, perhaps because it’s the yearly ‘Id and Jumu’ah comes weekly.
- “Led us in the ‘Id prayer on Friday early in the morning. When we went to offer the Friday, he did not come out to us.” Shows that the ‘Id prayer is done before Jumu’ah.
- Ibn az-Zubayr led us in the ‘Id prayer on Friday early in the morning. When we went to offer the Friday, he did not come out to us. Al-Amir As-Sanan’I said this doesn’t prove Ibn Zubair didn’t pray until Asr, just because he didn’t go out with them for prayer, and this doesn’t mean he didn’t pray alone in his house.
- Ibn az-Zubayr led us in the ‘Id prayer on Friday early in the morning. When we went to offer the Friday, he did not come out to us. Is proof that the ‘Id prayer is offered in the countryside or in an open area, and not in the masjid.
- Ibn az-Zubayr led us in the ‘Id prayer on Friday early in the morning. When we went to offer the Friday, he did not come out to us. Shaykh Ibn Rslan said” This implies that since the regular Imam didn’t come out every one prayed the Thur independently.
- Ibn Abbas was present in at-Ta’if..” Ibn Abbas lived in Ta’if and died there in 68 Hijraa at the age of 70 yrs old.
- He said: He followed the sunnah. Al-Amir said: Ibn Abbas’s speech means he followed the sunnah by not going to offer Jumu’ah and not holding is Jumu’ah when the ‘Id falls on a Friday isn’t an innovation [Bid’ah ]
- “If anyone wants to offer it, he may offer it.” This establishes that a person has the option to offer Jumu’ah or not; however, if he doesn’t offer Jumu’ah then he must still pray Thur. There is a consensus among the scholars that whoever misses Jumu’ah must offer Thur; as Jumu’ah takes the place of the Thur.
- and did not add anything to them until he offered the afternoon prayer. It could be inferred that they offered the Eid prayer they didn’t offer anything else until Asr. And this position has been reported to have been practiced by Az-Zubair and Ali ibn Abi Talib. However what’s established is just because the imam didn’t come to the masjid doesn’t mean he didn’t pray as Imam Al-Amir mentioned.
- Imam Ash-Shafa’I held the position that the excuse to miss Jumuah was only for those who lived far away based on a Hadith with a broken chain from a Tabee’i. on the Prophet. This makes it weak since the Tabee’ didn’t meet the Prophet. Also, this argument is rejected based on Ibn Abbas’s words “This is the Sunna “ , for those who didn’t go out and pray Jumu’ah.
So if the Eid and Jumu’ah both coincided together on the same day the Muslim who prays the ‘Id prayer with the Imam has the option to attend Jumu’ah or pray Thur in his house and this is the summary of everything presented and Allah knows best.
Sahih Sunnan Abu Dawud by Imam Al-Albani
Sharhu Sunnan Abu Dawud by, Ibn Rslan, Shaykh Abu Hasan Sindi and Al-Khatabi
Sharh Al-Muhathab by Shaykh Ar-Rafa’I
Awan Al-Qadir by Al-Amir As-Sanan’e
Prepared by Abu Aaliyah Abdullah ibn Dwight Battle