Dawah Lessons from the Mission of Prophet Ibrahim
By Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdir Razzaq Hamza [1392H]
Allah sent Ibrahim [ﷺ] as the Messenger to teach the Chaldeans, Assyrians and the Babylonians that worshipping the celestial bodies was wrong.
Allah said: And (remember) when Ibrahim (Abraham) said to his father Azar: “Do you take idols as aliha (gods)? Verily, I see you and your people in manifest error. Thus did we show Ibrahim (Abraham) the kingdom of the heavens and the earth that he is one of those who has Faith with certainty. When the night covered him over with darkness he saw a star. He said: “This is my lord.” But when it set, he said: “I like not those that set.”[6:74-76]
Allah doesn’t set or is covered with his darkness, nor do His signs disappear from His servants.
Allah said: When he saw the moon rising up.” in the East Ibrahim[ﷺ ]said: “ “This is my lord.” The Moon is bigger and brighter than the stars. However when the moon set Ibrahim said: ““Unless my Lord guides me, shall surely be among the erring people.”[6:77]
When the Moon set he realized that it was just like the rest of the stars. During that time the erring people were those who worship the brightest celestial body in the sky
Allah said: When he saw the sun rising up, he said: “This is my lord. This is greater.”[6:78]. The sun in his mind at that time was greater than the Moon and planets.
Allah said: But when it set, he said: “O my people! I am indeed free from all that you join as partners in worship with Allah.[6:79]
The Chaldeans, Assyrians and the Babylonians used to worship the planets, the stars, the sun, and the moon. They believed that these celestial beings were responsible for driving the forces of this earth. Those people during that time excelled greatly in Astronomy. They would draw closer to the cosmic universe with sacrifices and supplications. This resulted in the practice of Astrology and Zodiac signs being done. This practice was rampant around the World with Ibrahim’s nation. Even the Jews who were imprisoned by Nebuchadnezzar in Babylon practiced this form of magic. Nebuchadnezzar was responsible for destroying the Baitul Maqdis and arresting the influential leaders and Jewish scholars in Iraq.
Allah appointed Ibrahim as the Messenger to teach his people that worshipping the celestial bodies wasn’t correct and that they only moved as Allah willed. They were non- living beings, without intellect, or the ability manage and govern affairs. These cosmic beings rise and set at Allah’s commands. Allah is the One who moves everything in this Universe. Ibrahim used the proof that these bodies in the sky set as a result of Allah’s Might. Therefore they shouldn’t be worshipped or prayed to, or have sacrifices made to them. Ibrahim established this publicly in the pure call to Tawheed.
Allah said: Verily, I have turned my face towards Him Who has created the heavens and the earth Hanifa (Islamic Monotheism, i.e. worshipping none but Allah Alone) and I am not of Al-Mushrikun [6:79]
Allah said: He said: “Do you observe that which you have been worshipping,”You and your ancient fathers?. “Verily! They are enemies to me, save the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists);. “Who has created me, and it is He Who guides me;. “And it is He Who feeds me and gives me to drink.. “And when I am ill, it is He who cures me; “And Who will cause me to die, and then will bring me to life (again);”And Who, I hope will forgive me my faults on the Day of Recompense, (the Day of Resurrection),”. My Lord! Bestow Hukman (religious knowledge, right judgment of the affairs and Prophethood) on me, and join me with the righteous.[26:75-83]
Free from shirk, misguidance and the worshipping of the creation; Sun, Moon, stars and the planets.Were the polytheists quiet after Ibrahim destroyed their falsehood? No !
Allah said: His people disputed with him[ 6:80] they argued with him defending their shirk and turning away from the upright religion of Tawheed.
Ibrahim said: Do you dispute with me concerning Allah[6:80] about Tawheed-singling Allah alone in worship.
Ibrahim said: He has guided me[6:80] to Tawheed.
Allah mentioned Ibrahim said: and I fear not those whom you associate with Allah in worship.[6:80] They tried to incite fear into Ibrahim when he turned away from the things they worshipped.
Allah said that Ibrahim said: except when my Lord (Allah) wills something.[6:80] If anything happens to me then it’s not a result of your deities, non-living beings which have no intellect and can’t do anything. If anything happens then it’s because my Lord willed it and wanted it to happen.
Allah said Ibrahim told them: “My Lord comprehends in His Knowledge all things. Will you not then remember?[6:80] Allah created the World and does what He wills and for something to exists He simply says: Be and it exists. Allah has the strength over his servants and not the other way around.
“And how should I fear those whom you associate in worship with Allah”[6:81] meaning those non-living creatures and celestial bodies which don’t control their own lives, not to mention someone else’s.
The Philosophy of the Polytheism of Ibrahim’s people
The misguidance and desires of Ibrahim’s people caused them to create and mold sculptures of the celestial bodies they worshipped in order to remind them of what they were when they were set. For example, they had an idol for the sun and the moon in Haran, Chaldean, Mosul, Assyrian, and Nineveh, lit when they were set.
Ibrahim broke the idols
Allah said: Then he cast a glance at the stars (to deceive them), And he said: “Verily, I am sick[37: 88-89] Ibrahim said this to avoid accompanying them in their festival and instead wanted to break the idols.
Allah said: So they turned away from him, and departed[37:90] out of fear the disease was contagious or in a hurry to their party. After they left for the party Allah mentioned that Ibrahim said: Then he turned to their aliha (gods) and said: “Will you not eat. Ibrahim did this belittling and ridiculing the idols, as some of the sacrifices given to them were food and they didn’t eat. Next Ibrahim said: “What is the matter with you that you speak not?“[37:91]. Ibrahim was teasing the idol for being dumb and unable to speak and think.
Allah said: Then he turned upon them, striking (them) with (his) right hand. Then they (the worshippers of idols) came, towards him, hastening[37:92]
Allah: So he broke them to pieces, (all) except the biggest of them, that they might turn to it. They said: “Who has done this to our aliha (gods)? He must indeed be one of the wrong-doers.They said: “We heard a young man talking (against) them who is called Ibrahim (Abraham).”[ 21:58-59]
Ibrahim in the Military court and he was the Judge.
Allah said: They said: “Then bring him before the eyes of the people, that they may testify.” They said: “Are you the one who has done this to our gods, O Ibrahim (Abraham)?“[21:61-62]
They were unable to comprehend the fact that if they were Gods they wouldn’t have been able to be destroyed by people.
Allah said: [Ibrahim (Abraham)] said: “Nay, this one, the biggest of them (idols) did it. Ask them, if they can speak!”[21:63]
Ibrahim was mocking their intellects that were blanketed with shirk. If they were truly God then they would have defended themselves or at least mentioned the person who broke them. Should the biggest idol among them have some protective jealousy? It said nothing about its partner. Ibrahim intended to single out one of the idols they worshipped and show them if it had any protective jealousy, so he broke one. Allah has more protective jealously than, and He is free from having partners, He is free from those who join partners with Him in their worship. Moreover, it could have been that Ibrahim wanted to arouse their intellects by waking them up from the heedless state they were in by showing them that the big and small idol did nothing said absolutely nothing. Therefore if they could see they are weak and unable to speak this would mean they were non-living beings unworthy of worship.
Ruling: Allah said: Then they turned to themselves (their first thought and said): “Indeed you [Ibrahim (Abraham)] know well that these (idols) speak not!”[21:64-65]
Here they announced publicly that they knew these idols true nature was the fact the big one couldn’t break the smaller one; as it has a hand but it couldn’t strike, a leg by which it couldn’t walk, ears that it couldn’t hear with, and eyes which it couldn’t see with. These idols were made to remind of the planets when they aren’t visible.
Allah said: He said: “Do they hear you, when you call (on them)?”Or do they benefit you or do they harm (you)?”They said: “Nay, but we found our fathers doing so.“[42:72-73]
Ibrahim proclaims the truth
Allah said: [Ibrahim (Abraham)] said: “Do you then worship besides Allah, things that can neither profit you, nor harm you?[21:66-67]
You worship something that can’t hear, see, or has the ability to answer you; as you yourselves acknowledge. The thing that you worship was broken and was unable to defend itself and report who broke it. I said the big one broke the small one and it wasn’t able to defend itself against this accusation. I broke its partner right before its two eyes and into two pieces and it didn’t scream, speak, show any sadness, defend it, and have any knowledge.
“Fie upon you, and upon that which you worship besides Allah! Have you then no sense?“[21:67] where are your intellects, even after it’s become clear these idols can bring you any harm or benefit.
The verdict to burn Ibrahim [ﷺ]
Allah said: They said: “Burn him and help your aliha (gods), if you will be doing.” and They said: “Build for him a building (it is said that the building was like a furnace) and throw him into the blazing fire!”[37:97]
They collected all the firewood they could even the elder women sold their merchandise to buy fuel to burn Ibrahim . They believed that burning Ibrahim would be an offering of honor to the Idol Ibrahim broke. They built an enormous furnace with heat so hot that they couldn’t even go near it. This furnace’s fire reached a point in the sky that even the birds weren’t able to fly near it.
Since they were unable to go near this furnace they had an issue as to how Ibrahim would be placed inside. Satan inspired them by whispering the idea for them to build a catapult and place Ibrahim inside. They placed Prophet Ibrahim in the catapult and flung him into the fire. The Heavens, the Earth, and the Angels raised a cry that Allah’s Friend, the one who broke the idol, the Prophet of Monotheism was going to burn. Ibrahim looked up in the sky and said: “`Sufficient for me is Allah, and He is the best disposer of affairs.”
Allah said: We (Allah) said: “O fire! Be you coolness and safety for Ibrahim (Abraham)!”And they wanted to harm him, but We made them the worst losers. And Allah said: “So they plotted a plot against him, but We made them the lowest.[37:98]
The hottest fire one could imagine was made cold and place of comfort for Ibrahim. Allah made Ibrahim the truthful one. This is the religion of the Heavens, the faith of Musa, Isa, and Muhammad [ﷺ] Whoever follows this religion will be successful until the last day. Look at the Assyrian. Nothing remains of it today but its names and bad memories, the history of Astrology and fortunetelling and corruption. And Allah’s Help is sought.
Translated by Abu Aaliyah Abdullah ibn Dwight Battle
 His name is Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdir Razzaq Hamza ,Egyptian then Meccan. His lineage traces back to the Prophet(ﷺ). He was born in 1308 and died 1392H. He memorized the Quran and a large collection of books. After graduating from Azhar University he stayed close to Shaykh Muhammad Rasheed Rida and would help him in the editing and correcting books. In 1348 he and his family moved to Mecca. While living there he was a teacher and an Imam in the Haram. In 1350 Shaykh Muhammad and Abdu Thahir started Darul Hadith in Mecca. He worked around the clock to raise the level of the students in Hadith. Later on in 1372H,he joined the learning institute in Riyad for a year then returned back to Mecca and continued teaching until he died there. (May Allah have mercy on him)[ مقالات كبار العلماء في الصحف السعودية القديمة from 1343-1383H/vol 3/pg 120-129