The Debate between Musa and Fir’aun (An Atheist  Vs. A Muslim)

Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdir Razzaq Hamza [1392H][1]

Allah said: We will show them Our Signs in the universe, and in their ownselves, until it becomes manifest to them that this (the Qur’an) is the truth. Is it not sufficient in regard to your Lord that He is a Witness over all things?[ Al-Fussilat:43]

The thoughts that come one’s mind which voluntarily submit to Allah’s Lordship.

In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.  2. All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists). 3. The Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. 4. The Only Owner (and the Only Ruling Judge) of the Day of Recompense (i.e. the Day of Resurrection)  5. You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything).  6. Guide us to the Straight Way .7. The Way of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace, not (the way) of those who earned Your Anger (such as the Jews), nor of those who went astray (such as the Christians).[Al-Fatihah 1-7]


Between a Believer and non-believer…[ Musa and Fir’aun ]

Fir’aun said: “And what is the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists)?”[ Surah Ash-Shu’ara’23]

Fir’aun asked this question denying Allah the Lord of Heavens and Earth exists. He denied everything the Prophets, the Heavens and Earth and what the intellect and natural disposition acknowledges.

Musa said: “Our Lord is He Who gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright.”[ Ta-Ha 50]

Musa (Moses) said: “Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, if you seek to be convinced with certainty.”[ Ash-Shu’ara 24]

Musa (Moses) said: “Lord of the east and the west, and all that is between them, if you did but understand!”[ Ash-Shu’ara 28]

These are the Heavens with their stars, planets, suns and moons. The Earth has mountains, gardens, animals and human-beings. This planet has clouds, winds, seas and deserts. Allah created all of these things and He manages them, nurtures them and by the fact that he arranged them in this fashion is a sign that He exists.

These creations in the Heavens and in the Earth prove Allah’s knowledge, His Will, His Might ,His Wisdom and His Mercy. “Our Lord is He Who gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright.“[ Ta-Ha 50]”

Allah created man after he was nonexistent then guided him through customary actions, his nature, the five senses, his thinking and his intellect. Allah guided man to the religion that makes him righteous and leads him to purpose of his creation.

Allah said:  Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, and the ships which sail through the sea with that which is of use to mankind, and the water (rain) which Allah sends down from the sky and makes the earth alive therewith after its death, and the moving (living) creatures of all kinds that He has scattered therein, and in the veering of winds and clouds which are held between the sky and the earth, are indeed Ayat (proofs, evidences, signs, etc.) for people of understanding.[ Al-Baqarah:164]

This design and the organization of these creations are well planned and are clear signs to man’s psychic that the organizer of this World’s design is Wise, Merciful, and Compassionate. The sound mind and Fitra[disposition] believe  in all of these things about Allah.

Fir’aun  said to those around: “Do you not hear (what he says)?” [Ash-Shu’ara:25]

Fir’aun (Pharaoh) said: “Verily, your Messenger who has been sent to you is a madman!“[ Ash-Shu’ara 27]

Fir’aun said: “What about the generations of old?“[ Ta-Ha:51]

Fir’aun reviled Musa publicly calling him crazy because he mentioned things that were unknown to them. Musa denied Materialism and this is what Fir’aun and his group accepted and acted by among themselves. Fir’aun and his people thought the previous nations were the same.i.e, They only believed in what they could see and rejected everything that they couldn’t.  In other words, They don’t believe in the unseen and He is the Creator of these visible things.

Musa said: “Our Lord is He Who gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright.”[Ta-Ha:50]

The Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, if you (but) have a faith with certainty.[Ad-Dukhan: 7]

“Lord of the east and the west, and all that is between them, if you did but understand!”[ Ash-Shura 28]

[Fir’aun (Pharaoh)] said: “What about the generations of old?”

Musa said:  “The knowledge thereof is with my Lord, in a Record. My Lord is neither unaware nor He forgets,” Who has made earth for you like a bed (spread out); and has opened roads (ways and paths etc.) for you therein; and has sent down water (rain) from the sky. And We have brought forth with it various kinds of vegetation. Eat and pasture your cattle, (therein); verily, in this are proofs and signs for men of understanding.[ Ta-Ha 52-54]

The generations of old and everything that took place there among the believers and disbelievers is all recorded. Their Creator isn’t unaware of their deeds. He knows their actions and beliefs and they are noted in his book which is error free, and has no negligence or misguidance.

My Lord is the one who has made the Earth well-prepared and good enough for you to live in. The entire Earth isn’t an ocean ;inhabitable for land animals and humans. The whole Earth isn’t mountains and rocks ;not suitable for plants and living ,along with other subsistence for life; such as food and drinks.

Among the organization of this World is you are able to connect the East to the West by land or sea. The layout of this Earth makes it easy for ships and caravans to travel to do business.

Fresh water falls from the sky clean and pure without any salt and bitterness. This water gives life to plants, to animals and to mankind. If there was no rain life on Earth would cease to exist and the entire Globe would become a wasteland.

Allah said: He it is Who sends down water (rain) from the sky; from it you drink and from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture;. With it He causes to grow for you the crops, the olives, the date-palms, the grapes, and every kind of fruit. Verily! In this is indeed an evident proof and a manifest sign for people who give thought.[An-Nahl:10-11]

Allah said: And the earth! We have spread it out, and set thereon mountains standing firm, and have produced therein every kind of lovely growth (plants). An insight and a Reminder for every slave turning to Allah (i.e. the one who believes in Allah and performs deeds of His obedience, and always begs His pardon). And We send down blessed water (rain) from the sky, then We produce therewith gardens and grain (every kind of harvests) that are reaped.. And tall date-palms, with ranged clusters;. A provision for (Allah’s) slaves. And We give life therewith to a dead land.[Qaf 7-11]

Allah said: It is He Who sends down water (rain) from the sky, and with it We bring forth vegetation of all kinds, and out of it We bring forth green stalks, from which We bring forth thick clustered grain. And out of the date-palm and its spathe come forth clusters of dates hanging low and near, and gardens of grapes, olives and pomegranates, each similar (in kind) yet different (in variety and taste). Look at their fruits when they begin to bear, and the ripeness thereof. Verily! In these things there are signs for people who believe.[ Al-An’am: 99]

Allah said:  Is not He (better than your gods) Who created the heavens and the earth, and sends down for you water (rain) from the sky, whereby We cause to grow wonderful gardens full of beauty and delight? It is not in your ability to cause the growth of their trees. Is there any ilah (god) with Allah? Nay, but they are a people who ascribe equals (to Him)!

 Is not He (better than your gods) Who has made the earth as a fixed abode, and has placed rivers in its midst, and has placed firm mountains therein, and has set a barrier between the two seas (of salt and sweet water).Is there any ilah (god) with Allah? Nay, but most of them know not.[An-Naml 60-61]

Allah said:  Allah is He Who sends the winds, so they raise clouds, and spread them along the sky as He wills, and then break them into fragments, until you see rain drops come forth from their midst! Then when He has made them fall on whom of His slaves as He will, lo! they rejoice!49. And verily before that (rain), just before it was sent down upon them, they were in despair!50. Look then at the effects (results) of Allah’s Mercy, how He revives the earth after its death. Verily! That (Allah) Who revived the earth after its death shall indeed raise the dead (on the Day of Resurrection), and He is Able to do all things.[Ar-Rum 48-50]

Allah said: See you not that Allah drives the clouds gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a heap of layers, and you see the rain comes forth from between them. And He sends down from the sky hail (like) mountains, (or there are in the heaven mountains of hail from where He sends down hail), and strike therewith whom He will, and averts it from whom He wills. The vivid flash of its (clouds) lightning nearly blinds the sight.[ An-Nur 53]

Allah said:  See you not that the ships sail through the sea by Allah’s Grace? that He may show you of His Signs? Verily, in this are signs for every patient, grateful (person).

 And when a wave covers them like shades (i.e. like clouds or the mountains of sea-water), they invoke Allah, making their invocations for Him only. But when He brings them safe to land, there are among them those that stop in the middle, between (Belief and disbelief). But none denies Our Signs except every perfidious ungrateful.[ Luqman 31-32]

Allah said: And if you would count the graces of Allah, never could you be able to count them. Truly! Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.[ An-Nahl 18]

I mentioned these verses in the context that Musa used them as evidence against the Atheism of Fir’aun. These verses are appropriate for Musa’s detailed argument for the things he quoted. These verses are clear and supportive evidence.  Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “The prophets are paternal brothers; their mothers are different, but their religion is one.” [2]

The Prophets are Allah’s ambassadors to creation and the guiding light to Him. The methodology and eras are all different, but the goal and path is one. Their objective is to know Allah, believe in Him, worship Him and love him the Most High humbly.

Translated by ;

Abu Aaliyah Abdullah ibn Dwight Battle

Doha, Qatar 1438H©


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[1] His name is Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdir Razzaq Hamza ,Egyptian then Meccan. His lineage traces back to the Prophet(ﷺ). He was born in 1308 and died 1392H. He memorized the Quran and a large collection of books. After graduating from Azhar University he stayed close to Shaykh Muhammad Rasheed Rida and would help him in the editing and correcting books. In 1348 he and his family moved to Mecca. While living there he was a teacher and an Imam in the Haram. In 1350 Shaykh Muhammad and Abdu Thahir started Darul Hadith in Mecca. He worked around the clock to raise the level of the students in Hadith. Later on in 1372H,he joined the learning institute in Riyad for a year then returned back to Mecca and continued teaching until he died there. (May Allah have mercy on him)[ مقالات كبار العلماء في الصحف السعودية القديمة  from 1343-1383H/vol 3/pg 96-100

[2] Al-Bukhari (3443) and Muslim(2365)

One thought on “The Debate between Musa and Fir’aun (An Atheist Vs. A Muslim)”
  1. Excellent article.

    Just one question. How does this relate to this ayah in surat al A’raf, which seems to indicate that Fir’aun (and/or his people) did worship various things Doesn’t this go against them being atheists?

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